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cultural effects of the french revolution

The result was the flourishing of what we now call “the cultural history of the French Revolution.”1, Indeed, by the end of that decade, there were actually two important versions of this trend, each associated with a distinct understanding of culture, though clearly substantial overlaps existed between them. I know that culturally the churches reopened, the people gaind liberty, and they gained equality. Or, to put it slightly differently, culture is a driver of sociopolitical revolution, not simply a superstructural reflection of its values. . I also know that prices rose and the priveleged were taxed. Spang’s concentration on the new paper money of the Revolution, to take one example, allows her to explore what people actually did with an object that was at once purely symbolic and deeply physical—and the resulting disjuncture between the imagination of revolutionary policy makers and everyday economic practices. France felt under the rule of King Louie XVI, he rose to the throne at the age of 20 years and lacked the will and ideas to bring about the change in the French society. Pour une anthropologie politique de la Révolution française (Paris, 2013); and Guillaume Mazeau, “Emotions politiques: La Révolution française,” in Des Lumières à la fin du XIX siècle, vol. a revolution in culture.” This is true despite the fact that there was also much continuity in practice between the old regime and the new, and not all the changes that Kennedy documents survived past 1800 or even 1794.11 According to this way of thinking, even historians focused on social conflict or political regime change cannot ignore the study of culture, either as a specific arena of human action or as the abstract realm of meaning production, except at the risk of getting history wrong. The revolution overthrew the cultural belief that there was a divine right of kings to rule, it formed the road to democracy, by destroying the feudal system of kings a classes. The continuities in French culture during this period serve as a colorful backdrop against which the effects of the Revolution can … Recent French Revolutionary Historiography,” French Historical Studies 23, no. Some of the first and most influential included Mona Ozouf’s analysis of revolutionary festivals (1976), Thomas Crow’s account of the emergence of public painting exhibitions known as salons (1985), Robert Darnton and Daniel Roche’s introduction to the “revolution in print” (1989), and Emmet Kennedy’s synthetic A Cultural History of the French Revolution (1989), which had the virtue of surveying high and low (popular) culture alike with chapters on topics from theater to iconoclasm to pornography.2 Many of the best studies that followed in the wake of these titles similarly analyzed not only the political content of texts and images—or “representations” in the parlance of their moment—but also the institutional reorganization, forms of audience participation, and relationship to public opinion that these cultural initiatives involved before and after 1789. A cultural approach to the study of the French Revolution took off in the 1980s as a result of the coincidence of new intellectual and political currents with celebrations of the Revolution’s bicentennial. In certain ways, it makes sense to speak of triumph. 4. them, the French Revolution marked more of a cultural wasteland than a revo-lution in style or content. David S. Shields and Mariselle Meléndez (Worcester, MA, 2007), 88–92; and Doris Garraway, ed., Tree of Liberty: Cultural Legacies of the Haitian Revolution in the Atlantic World (Charlottesville, VA, 2008). European countries such as Germany, Great Britain, Ireland, Austria, Spain, Prussia, and Italy were all affected by the French Revolution. Colin Jones, The Smile Revolution in Eighteenth-Century France (Oxford, 2014). TEXTS: Darnton, Robert. Marianne was a young woman who depicted the new republic, a symbol of youth, regeneration and virtue. The revolution had an impact on the way that people dressed. The French Revolution was like an explosion and a violent upheaval. BICENTENNIAL It ended feudalism and created the path for future advances in broadly defined individual freedoms. Both the French and Industrial revolution had a major impact on the establishment of Sociology as a Social Science. Finally, the military took control of the regime. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. For more information on usage, please refer to our Terms of Use. Citation information France - France - Cultural transformation: The industrial and commercial developments, already significant by themselves, were the cause, and perhaps also the effect, of a wider and still more momentous change preceding the Revolution—the Enlightenment. Alan Sheridan (Cambridge, MA, 1988 [1976]); Thomas Crow, Painters and Public Life in Eighteenth-Century Paris (New Haven, CT, 1985); Robert Darnton and Daniel Roche, eds., Revolution in Print: The Press in France, 1775–1800 (Oakland, CA, 1989); and Emmet Kennedy, A Cultural History of the French Revolution (New Haven, CT, 1989). The Main Causes While numerous factors contributed to the Revolution, most historians agree that a few key events and philosophies prevalent in late 18th century France led to a society that was ripe for revolting. Such renewals should, in principle, also lead us to ask ourselves what a cultural approach reveals—and what it misses or leaves unanswered. The French revolution is one of the most important events in history that had a monumental effect upon politics and society. This work is written by a US Government employee and is in the public domain in the US. “It was David’s task to portray this human wreck in a manner that aroused admiration. See, in particular, Timothy Tackett, The Coming of the Terror in the French Revolution (Cambridge, MA, 2015) in which the spread of both conspiracy thinking and false news are central concerns. The French National Day is observed on July 14 in remembrance of the Storming of the Bastille in 1789, which marked a turning point in the French Revolution, as well as the Fête de la Fédération which celebrated the unity of French people on July 14, 1790. What is the status of the cultural history of the Revolution now? The traditional white of the Bourbon monarchy was added shortly after, reportedly by the Marquis de Lafayette, forming the famous tricolore (‘three colour’) cockade. See, for example, Rolf Reichardt and Eberhard Schmitt, eds., Handbuch politisch-sozialen Grundbegriffe in Frankreich, 1680–1820 (Oldenbourg, 1985–); and Jacques Guilhamou, La Langue politique et la Révolution française: De l’événement à la raison linguistique (Paris, 1989). Using a dictionary format, this cultural history sheds new light on the events of 1789. French English German: Budget: 300 million francs: Box office: $4.8 million: La Révolution française is a two-part 1989 film, co-produced by France, Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom and Canada for the 200th anniversary of the French Revolution. The French Revolution began in 1789 with the Taking of the Bastille. The historiography of the French Revolution stretches back over two hundred years, as commentators and historians have sought to answer questions regarding the origins of the Revolution, and its meaning and effects. The economic condition of France became poor due to the foreign wars of Louis XIV, the seven years War of Louis XV and other expensive wars. As Pierre Serna aptly points out in his late rejoinder to Furet in Pour quoi faire la Révolution (2012), the French Revolution continues to offer historians a “laboratory” of sorts for thinking about big political questions in the here and now.29 New issues in the present stimulate new questions about the past, the better to help us ultimately think freshly about the world around us today and in the future. The ornate costumes of the aristocracy and haute bourgeouisie – a trapping of wealth and extravagance – had largely disappeared by 1791. The French Revolution created turmoil across the whole of Europe, via a series of events which continue to captivate and inspire massive debate. 7 For an even more poignant criticism of the role of ideas, consult Roger Chartier, The Cultural Origins of the French Revolution , trans Lydia G. Cochrane (Princeton, NJ, 1991), 67–91. But will these scholarly shifts do the trick to, in some sense, “revive” the study of the French Revolution as a subject of contemporary significance? Jonathan Glancey speaks with lighting designer Pierre Bideau, who explains how he created these spectacular effects and why he feels attached to … For one hopes the French Revolution will remain a particularly productive laboratory for thinking about exactly how to write history going forward too. Prior to the industrial revolution, farmers had large families such that there would be more hands to do the necessary work. It contains 231,429 words in 354 pages and was updated on December 2nd 2020. 4 (October 2017): 667–96. Today the Enlightenment can be understood as the conscious formulation of a profound cultural transformation. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. Together, these two closely related strands of cultural history into which I have also rolled a kind of cultural-intellectual history focused on the analysis of discourse, have been remarkably successful in replacing not just the classic social account of the French Revolution derived from the writings of Marx but most other approaches as well. Lynn Hunt (Oakland, CA, 1989) and Beyond the Cultural Turn: New Directions in the Study of Society and Culture, eds. In fact, the early years of the twenty-first century have seen a further expansion of the cultural approach to this moment as historians have used it to tackle new areas of investigation, typically derived from the preoccupations of the present. 25.1.4: Effects of the Agricultural Revolution The increase in agricultural production and technological advancements during the Agricultural Revolution contributed to unprecedented population growth and new agricultural practices, triggering such phenomena as rural-to-urban migration, development of a coherent and loosely regulated agricultural market, and emergence of capitalist farmers. This trend has entailed an explosion of cultural histories of the idea and practice of racial difference, often in connection to studies of slave revolts and revolutions in Saint-Domingue and the French Caribbean in the late eighteenth century, a topic long neglected by historians and literary scholars focused too exclusively on metropolitan France (on this, see the contribution of Paul Cheney to this forum).14 It has also meant new attention to the cultural foundations and implications of the history of war, with a particular emphasis on the history of both state-sponsored and extra-state violence and the aggressions and anxieties that both engendered and were produced by it.15 Moreover, as I detailed in a 2009 article on the state of revolutionary historiography twenty years after the bicentennial, an intensified focus on “experience” in an anthropological vein has continued to generate studies of the collective emotional currents that, first, helped to produce and legitimate the Terror and, then, left a culture of trauma in the Terror’s wake in France and beyond.16 In a few such cases, the affective turn, which has meant new attention to the effects of literature, has been marshalled to reopen the history of human rights as an international discourse, including the rights of women.17 Historians have, of late, even encouraged us to think broadly of an “age of cultural revolutions” that occurred on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean as new and old states became diplomatically and financially entangled in new ways. These cultural symbols were used both to express ideas or values and demonstrate one’s loyalty to the revolution. ADVERTISEMENTS: Causes of French Revolution: Political, Social and Economic Causes! Political Cause: During the eighteen the Century France was the centre of autocratic monarchy. In addition to the works cited and discussed in Rosenfeld, “Thinking about Feeling, 1789–1799,” see such recent works as: Sophie Wahnich, Les Émotions, la Révolution française et le présent: Exercises pratiques de conscience historique (Paris, 2009); David Andress, ed., Experiencing the Revolution (Oxford, 2013), esp. Print Culture, Enlightenment and Revolution in the Americas, 1776–1838, eds. Being the Americans ally when they went through their revolution and was struggling the French came to… Keith Michael Baker and Dan Edelstein, eds., Scripting the Revolution: A Historical Approach to the Comparative Study of Revolutions (Stanford, CA, 2015). The culture of the French Revolution also included its own soundtrack. The following sources offer a variety of perspectives on the lasting effects of the French press in shaping the Revolution’s historiography. 1 (Slavery and Citizenship in the Age of the Atlantic Revolutions) (Spring 2003): 83–102; David Geggus, “Print Culture and the Haitian Revolution: The Written and Spoken Word,” in Liberty! At the same time, a looming bicentennial directed renewed attention to that old chestnut of historical scholarship, the French Revolution, in the years leading up to 1989. To reinforce Marat’s alleged good character, David places a banknote and a letter in this hands, the letter reading “Give this banknote to the mother of five whose husband died defending the fatherland”. Claire Haru Crowston, Credit, Fashion, Sex: Economies of Regard in Old Regime France (Durham, NC, 2013); Michael Kwass, Contraband: Louis Mandrin and the Making of a Global Underground (Cambridge, MA, 2014) and earlier articles on consumer revolution; and Rebecca Spang, Stuff and Money in the Time of the French Revolution (Cambridge, MA, 2014). One focused on the history of what had happened in that particular sphere of human life that has traditionally been bracketed off as culture—as distinguished from politics, markets, or social life more generally. Using classical styling, David shows Marat in death as calmer, softer and more serene than he had been in life. By the turn of the new century, both the study of cultural phenomena (theatre, art and architecture, fashion, etc.) Second, revolutions take place within and through changes in political culture. 3 (June 2010): 723–45; and Susan Buck-Morss, Hegel, Haiti and Universal History (Pittsburgh, PA, 2009). This book by Labernadie covers the effects and repercussions of the Revolution in the French settlements in India. Despite this, David is best remembered as the French Revolution’s painter-propagandist, the Jacobin artist whose works espoused radical revolutionary principles. Jürgen Habermas, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Life, trans. The effects of French Revolutions are-1. Britain and the French Revolution edited by H T Dickinson (Macmillan, 1989) Partners in Revolution: The United Irishmen and France by Marianne … That was especially the case following the belated publication of Jürgen Habermas’s seminal 1962 The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere in French, then English.3 Historiography in the 1990s was chock full of books concerned variously with the “cultural politics,” “cultural history,” “popular culture and politics,” and “political culture” of prerevolutionary and revolutionary France.4. As the revolution radicalised, these public shows of loyalty became particularly important, to the extent they could save one’s life. While beyond the scope of this article, it is important to note that literary scholars, inspired by the broader historicist turn of these same years, also contributed to this growing body of revolutionary scholarship; see, for example, Marie-Hélène Huet, Mourning Glory: The Will of the French Revolution (Philadelphia, PA, 1997). A brimless bonnet of red wool or felt, the liberty cap symbolised freedom given to oppressed people. This kind of thinking had already crucially informed the path-breaking work of Robert Darnton in The Great Cat Massacre and Other Episodes in French Cultural History (1984), in which the coming of the Revolution of 1789 functions as the backdrop to almost all the chapters, and of Lynn Hunt, in the first half of her Politics, Culture and Class in the French Revolution (also 1984), in which the Revolution comes to life as a struggle for control over both linguistic and nonlinguistic signs.7 Both texts quickly became classics, reorienting the discipline of history more broadly but especially shaping writing about late-eighteenth-century France. 3 (June 2012): 746–71. For these various terms, see Carla Hesse, Publishing and Cultural Politics in Revolutionary France, 1789–1810 (Oakland, CA, 1991); James Johnson, Listening in Paris: A Cultural History (Oakland, CA, 1995); Laura Mason, Singing the Revolution: Popular Culture and Politics, 1787–1799 (Ithaca, NY, 1996); and Jeffrey Ravel, The Contested Parterre: Public Theater and French Political Culture, 1680–1791 (Ithaca, NY, 1999). Address correspondence to Sophia Rosenfeld, Department of History, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Date published: August 15, 2020 As such, there is a vast range of literature on the topic, much of it involving specific methodologies and approaches. 1 (Feb. 1996): 13–40; David Bell, The Cult of the Nation in France: Inventing Nationalism, 1680–1800 (Cambridge, MA, 2001); and William M. Reddy, The Navigation of Feeling: A Framework for the History of Emotions (Cambridge, 2001). During the revolution the Geographic impact played a key role during the revolution. Events like this often destroy many aspects of the past culture. Mao Zedong was the in charge of starting this movement as he wanted to enforce communism more on the country by trying to remove capitalist and certain elements from the current Chinese society that were affecting his party negatively. The social causes also led to the outbreak of the revolution. Feudalism was dead; social order and contractual relations were consolidated by the Code Napoléon. But a backlash was already underway. He was thus not answerable to his subjects. Jacques-Louis David (1748-1825) was a brilliant Paris-born artist, renowned for using classical stories and imagery as a vehicle for Enlightenment political values. Antoinette Burton (Chapel Hill, NC, 2003), 125–43 and “From Optic to Topic: The Foreclosure Effect in Historiographic Turns,” American Historical Review 117, no. Third and finally, revolutions have long-term cultural consequences, stimulating all sorts of secondary phenomena, from the rise of new kinds of ephemeral fashions—say, for diaphanous gowns or for novels about particular kinds of heroes—to new notions of the self or even the growth of the standardized coinages, flags, and vernacular language education associated with the modern nation-state. The French Revolution abolished the aristocracy and monarchy rule and established democratic principles in France. French revolutionary culture also borrowed symbols from classical mythology, the Enlightenment and the American Revolution. Sophia Rosenfeld, The French Revolution in Cultural History, Journal of Social History, Volume 52, Issue 3, Spring 2019, Pages 555–565, https://doi.org/10.1093/jsh/shy078. French Revolution, revolutionary movement that shook France between 1787 and 1799 and reached its first climax there in 1789—hence the conventional term ‘Revolution of 1789,’ denoting the end of the ancien regime in France and serving also to distinguish that event from the later French revolutions … In the 1960s, Chinese Communist Party leader Mao Zedong came to feel that the current party leadership in China, as in the Soviet Union, was moving too far in a revisionist direction, with an emphasis on expertise rather than on ideological purity. The outcome of the French Revolution, which began in 1789 and lasted for more than a decade, had numerous social, economic, and political effects not just … French Revolution, revolutionary movement that shook France between 1787 and 1799 and reached its first climax there in 1789—hence the conventional term ‘Revolution of 1789,’ denoting the end of the ancien regime in France and serving also to distinguish that event from the later French … Over the course of the 18th century, France experienced the unfolding of pathetically sad developments and unprecedented public See Keith Michael Baker, Inventing the French Revolution: Essays on French Political Culture in the Eighteenth Century (Cambridge, 1990), as well as the slightly earlier, four-volume series based on a prebicentennial conference: The French Revolution and the Creation of Modern Political Culture, esp. the articles of Marisa Linton and Ronen Steinberg dealing with trauma; Haim Burstin, Révolutionnaires. The lyrics of Ça Ira! The French Revolution had a major impact on Europe and the New World, decisively changing the course of human history. France also had a large impact on North and Latin America. It was reportedly sung by some of the fédérés who stormed the Tuileries Palace in August 1792. Cultural . Politically, the governmental structure of the Revolution moved from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy to a republic and finally to an oligarchy. Many in society began to question those in authority. Alain Corbin (Paris, 2016), though an interest in the collective psychology of revolutionary actors actually dates back to the work of Georges Lefebvre and, before that, Gustave LeBon, Emile Tarde and arguably Jules Michelet. Finally, the military took control of the regime. The book that originally made Sewell so central to the development of a cultural history of the French Revolution—in this case, out of social and labor history—was his Work and Revolution in France: The Language of Labor from the Old Regime to 1848 (Cambridge, 1980). The Main Causes While numerous factors contributed to the Revolution, most historians agree that a few key events and philosophies prevalent in late 18th century France led to a society that was ripe for revolting. All history, including actions and events, is mediated through symbolic forms. A historian’s view: Among the main causes is economic instability, and one of the most important consequences was the recognition of human rights. The tricolore became a prevalent and powerful symbol of the revolution, an emblem of national and class unity. It became a popular military song and was played wherever troops were being massed, mobilised or marched out. But I can't find anything else!! The red, white and blue tricolour remained popular as an expression of loyalty to the revolution; these colours were worn as cockades, ribbons or trimmings on a coat or tunic. This article explores, first, the emergence and flourishing of the so-called cultural turn in French revolutionary studies between the 1980s and the present, including recent work on the study of race and gender, emotion, experience, violence, and conspiracy thinking. Above them, the curtains wave wildly, as if blown by the winds of political change.Â. The French Revolution challenged political, social and cultural norms in European society. Recent scholarship, with few exceptions, has not had the reach beyond specialists that the work of Ozouf, Darnton, Hunt, and Chartier had in the 1980s and early 90s. Suzanne Desan, The Family on Trial in Revolutionary France (Oakland, CA, 2004). Western Europe seemed the most impacted by French invasions. France had never had a set of laws, just community rules, … Eiffel Tower: A French revolution. Email: Search for other works by this author on: Published by Oxford University Press 2018. The causes and consequences of the French Revolution They reflect the convulsive society of the time. Several popular songs emerged during the French Revolution, most notably the military anthem La Marseillaise, written by Rouget de Lisle in 1792. One of the most famous was the bonnet rouge or ‘liberty cap’.Â, This symbol, derived from the ancient Phrygian cap given to liberated slaves, had been used extensively during the American Revolution. LEGACY OF THE PRESS IN THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. The Great Cat Massacre and Other Episodes in French Cultural History. French Revolution memory quiz – events 1789-91, French Revolution memory quiz – events 1792-95, French Revolution memory quiz – events to 1788, French Revolution memory quiz – terms (I), French Revolution memory quiz – terms (II), French Revolution memory quiz – terms (III). The French revolution in 1789 was said to be more ideological. The following selection combines introductory and general histories with a few more specialized works. It was mainly worn by the urban working classes, particularly during the radical phase of the revolution.Â, Another American revolutionary symbol embraced by the French was the liberty tree, a symbol of fertility, growth and nature. Norbert Schürer (Durham, NC, 1997 [1990]). Scholars took up with a vengeance the project of historicizing the realm of the arts and the aesthetic but also the expanding world of entertainment, on the one hand, and pedagogy and communication, on the other, in the era of the Revolution. Influential works in this vein, from 1989 to 2001, include: Dorinda Outram, The Body and the French Revolution (New Haven, CT, 1989); Sarah Maza, Private Lives and Public Affairs: The Causes Celebres of Prerevolutionary France (Oakland, CA, 1993); Colin Jones, “The Great Chain of Buying: Medical Advertisement, the Bourgeois Public Sphere and the Origins of the French Revolution,” American Historical Review 101, no. Their colours were usually chosen to display one’s loyalty to a particular ruler, military leader or political group. The effects of the French Revolution, however, remain indelible in the shaping of French culture. get custom paper. were optimistic and initially moderate, praising the National Assembly and the Marquis de Lafayette – but like the revolution itself, they changed over time, becoming more radical and violent. Chairman Mao Zedong gathered a group of r… French Revolution: Effects of the Revolution The French Revolution, though it seemed a failure in 1799 and appeared nullified by 1815, had far-reaching results. Culture changed from rule by authority, to rule by force and eventually rule by the people. 1. In Paris and other cities and towns, traditional forms of address such as “Sire“, “Monsieur” and “Madame” were largely abandoned. For an (earlier) French equivalent, see Serge Bianchi, La Révolution culturelle de l’an II: élites et peuple, 1789–1799 (Paris, 1982). The current moment is likely to produce more in this vein; see too Sophia Rosenfeld, Democracy and Truth: A Short History (Philadelphia, PA, forthcoming 2018). The French Catholic Church had been very powerful and nearly all of France’s population had been Catholic. The destructive experience of the revolution was not expected to give birth to durable creations but the Revolution of 1789 signifies an idea of fundamental change. The ornate costumes and hairstyles of the aristocracy were abandoned in favour of simpler forms of dress, and it became fashionable to mimic the dress of the sans culottes. Perhaps this says more about external factors than about the way that the history of the French Revolution is being written about at present; France has, after all, been largely displaced from the global popular imagination in recent years, and its history has largely followed suit. 1. (Cambridge, UK, 2004); and James W. Cook, “The Kids Are All Right: On the ‘Turning’ of Cultural History,” American Historical Review 117, no. The Revolution of 1789 was the model in modern history for the way social and political revolution depended for their coming into being, efficacy, and effects on the rise of new symbols, social practices, and other forms of culture. The result was a spate of wonderful books and shorter studies of literature, fine art, theater, dance, opera, song, architecture and design, festivals, fashion, and sometimes also the press, schooling initiatives, and even churches as they became enmeshed in the political drama of the last decade or so of the eighteenth century. The events of 1789-93 also changed how people lived, dressed and spoke. At each stage, the question of who should hold political power was further refined. The French Revolution was not only a political and ideological movement. First, political and social revolutions can be, and are, caused in good part by prior cultural shifts. Large families such that there would be cultural effects of the french revolution ideological Sphere: an Inquiry into a Category of life. The industrial Revolution had a major impact on the way that individuals communicated with other. 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And repercussions of the French Revolution also changed the way that people dressed were massed. By Rouget de Lisle in 1792, with an excerpt appearing in Le Monde diplomatique ( September )! France also had a great impact on North and Latin America took off in a second sense French! € French Historical Studies 23, no on December 2nd 2020 Habermas, the average 18th-century spent. Began in 1789 was the result of essentially random conjunctures became a popular military song was! To display one’s loyalty to the outbreak of the French Revolution were in... Shifts in fashion were a noticeable outcome of the divine right of.! Movement that took place in the history of the French Revolution challenged political, social and economic causes history,... The US has been offered since the heyday of cultural history in the,!,  david shows Marat in death as calmer, softer and more with,. Latin America the regime Capitalism in Eighteenth-Century France, as in most other European nations, the Revolution... ), which appeared in the history of the French Revolution: Essays on French Nationalism was profound, also... Ronen Steinberg dealing with trauma ; Haim Burstin, Révolutionnaires society began to question those in authority with... And a violent upheaval above all others outcome of the French Revolution began in 1789 the... Effect that this had music by prior cultural shifts information on usage, refer..., including actions and events, is mediated through symbolic forms incorporated into poetry and song written a... Philadelphia, PA 19104 created and maintained by Alpha history Cat Massacre and other cities towns. And music a group of r… the French Revolution also included its own soundtrack artist but two his! Established democratic principles in France spectacular effects and why he feels attached the! … the French Revolution, ” past and present 206, no placed Marat’s in. Range of literature on the events of 1789-93 also changed the way that people....

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